Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is like the key in a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled e.
Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to "study topic X". Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Department of Computer Sciences vs. These instances may cross over into the realm of Arts writing, but most often they will be seen within the context of technical writing.
Words in a foreign language When you are writing a lab report or scientific paper and must include a term written in a foreign language, italics are key.
In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in "ly", though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial "ly" words like "early" as in the correct examples "an early-rising rooster" or "an early-rising English-language learner". Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes.
However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i. If there is only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use "he" or "she"; otherwise use "the author" or the author's last name.
Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work. Shorter titles, such as short stories from an anthology, journal articles, and episodes of television shows, cannot stand alone and thus should not be italicized.
Jones claims that the agreement is unworkable Jones Often, a short quotation works well when integrated into a sentence. Note that sic should be italicized, but the brackets containing it should not. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen.
And I would argue that when we are in a medium that does not support italicizing, like most chat programs today on the phone and desktop computers, we are most probably not going to confuse our "audience" when we refer to [the] thing we love most about, say, action movies.
Without giving examples in your writing, your writing can be dry, unsubstantiated, and not well-rounded. For instance "chocolate chip cookies" is unlikely to be misread as "chocolate chip-cookies", despite that being the literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from "chocolate-chip cookies".
But it is much safer simply to avoid "comprise" altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean "compose".
Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; "researches" is an English verb, not a noun.
Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like "while reading this paper, I In many cases, brackets can be avoided by reframing the quotation.
How do I know if I should use double and single quotation marks? Smith writes in his autobiography: Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints.
Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for technical or formal writing. Titles When including a title that can stand alone, it should be italicized in almost every instance.
The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in "life is hardthen you die". If quotations are distinguished only by the use of quotation marks and you are quoting more than one paragraph, use an opening quote at the beginning of each paragraph.
In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and no way to tell if you are getting anywhere.
Be very precise when discussing an author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author.
Of course, sometimes there is a good reason to make an enemy, e. So yes, I'm personally happy using square brackets to emphasize the occasional word, and I find it the most elegant and easy-on-the-eyes way to achieve this in mediums that do not support italicizing.
If you use the word "author" you need not also use "paper", and vice versa. Where the quotation is short for example, less than one line you can continue on the same line, enclosing the quotation in single quotation marks, and of course, providing the reference.
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.Mar 08, · Avoid using italics to provide emphasis or show contrast in formal writing.
Using italics to provide emphasis or show contrast is usually accepted in informal writing. However, most style guidelines advise against these uses in formal, professional, or academic writing%(39).
In professional and academic writing, it is better to follow it.) In many cases, brackets can be avoided by reframing the quotation.
Awkward: “Why can’t we do the same thing [provide government-funded grants to independent filmmakers] in this country?”. Open education resources for academic writing. Review some of APA style's guidelines on scholarly writing for topics such as abbreviations, active versus passive voice, anthropomorphism, capitalization, numbers, and more.
The object of academic writing is for you to say something for yourself using the ideas of the subject, for you to present ideas you have learned in your own way. The emphasis should be on working with other people’s ideas, rather than reproducing their words. This is the only (!) way of using emphasis.
But in general, emphasis of single words is achieved via formatting, not punctuation. Historically, this has been italics, or, since, italics are hard to emulate in handwriting, underlining in handwritten documents.
Be sure you are handling block quotes correctly in papers for different academic disciplines–check the index of the citation style guide you are using. Here are a .Download